Of course, we could continue working like the previous chapter. Harry or Isabelle makes a change, pushes it, the other pulls it, and everyone is kept up to date. But in a real environment, Harry and Isabelle are going to be making changes at the same time.
Starting from the scratch directory again:
cd harry echo "Third content" > content03 git add . git commit -m "Third"
cd ../isabelle echo "More second" >> content02 git add . git commit -m "Second"
At this point,
git log for Harry and Isabelle is different, and neither has pushed
their change to
shared. Whoever pushes first will “win” in the sense that the other
will be responsible for dealing with the effects.
Let’s say Isabelle goes first:
The Failed Push
Now Harry has an issue in that his local repository has a different history from the
official history in
shared. Git is conservative and won’t allow a “push” under these
circumstances because it wants to be able to guarantee that the remote repository is
safe and consistent.
So if Harry tries to push:
cd ../harry git push
Back comes a message telling Harry that the push failed. Be grateful; in modern versions of Git there’s a nice “hint” that describes the problem very clearly. Before, we got cryptic error messages and we walked through the snow, uphill both ways, to get them.
This error isn’t really that bad of a problem; Harry just has to “pull” first.
Merging in Git
If you’ve used version control, you’re used to merging other people’s changes. You make your working copy look like it should to be the “next” version, and then you commit. We have the same goal with Git; the idea is to make the working copy look like it should, incorporating everyone’s changes.
But there is one important difference that comes from Git being distributed: we are
merging commits, not just changes to files! So in one sense, even though I
haven’t discussed branches yet, it’s like Harry just created a (nameless)
branch, because now his commit history differs from
(Isabelle got to
shared first, so her commit history is the “official” one.)
Merging commits seems more complicated at first. But it’s one of the most important, powerful, and valuable features of Git. First, it allows us to commit changes even if we’re not connected to the server. Second, it’s actually much safer, because both Harry and Isabelle’s changes are saved and can be accessed separately forever. So if the merge is done wrong, we can more easily go back and figure out why and fix it.
Harry can’t continue with the history in his local repository differing from the “official” history; it’s interfering with his ability to bring in work from Isabelle. To sort things out, Git requires us to create a “merge commit”. This is a commit that combines Harry’s commits with the one he downloaded from the server.
The “merge commit” is needed because there has to be a single accepted sequence of commits. We are telling Git that even though Harry and Isabelle made changes in parallel, Git should think of Harry’s changes as happening “after” Isabelle’s. Another way to think of it is that Harry is promising Git that he has taken Isabelle’s work into account and made sure that both of their changes have been incorporated correctly.
For this example, you probably noticed that I intentionally made changes that were compatible and would not cause a conflict. As a result, we don’t have to do any conflict resolution. That particular pain is coming in the next chapter.
Because there are no conflicts, to make things as easy as possible, if Git knows how to launch an editor for us (e.g. EDITOR environment variable) it will open the editor with a pre-defined commit comment that explains the situation. All Harry has to do is to save the commit comment and exit the editor.
After Harry exits the editor, Git will have its one accepted sequence of commits
git log for yourself to find out what that looks like) and Harry can push
his changes to the server.
When Isabelle does a pull, she will get Harry’s new changes:
cd ../isabelle git pull
And at this point everyone’s
git log is the same again. Of course, if Isabelle had
made commits in the meantime, she would have to pull before pushing, and so on.
One Side Note
There are authors who advocate the use of the Git command
rebase in order to avoid
the use of the merge commit and simplify the change history in the log. There are times
where rebase is appropriate (for example, where a planned feature moves from one version
of a product to another). But I do not believe rebase should be used to avoid a merge
commit. In my view, the fact that two people were working in the code base at the same
time should be reflected in the commit history.
Later we’ll talk about feature branches, which are a much more elegant way to deal with routine and regular merging. When a feature branch is merged back into the “main line”, there will still be a “merge commit”, but only one for the whole feature.
At this point, this still looks a lot like Subversion at the surface. When I had new folks starting out with Subversion, I used to use this (approximate) rhyme, which I thought was clever but which never caught on:
Still this lesson you must get; First you update, then you commit.
However, as I mentioned, the one really important difference is that
Harry was able to commit code to his own repository the entire time, and was
actually merging commits, not changed files. With Subversion, there are numerous
occasions where you find out that an
svn up is required before a commit is
With Subversion, that merging occurs when you have uncommitted changes in your working tree, and there’s no convenient way to store them so they don’t get damaged during the merge. (Of course, you can branch, but that’s also a server-side activity and a little bit of a pain given how frequently it happens.)
With Git, those files are safely committed; you never have to merge into a modified working copy.
In the next chapter, we’ll look at what happens in the inevitable case where the changes happen at the same time, to the same files.