Yes, the chapter title puns seem to be getting worse as we go. Not really something I’m in control of.
What Are Branches For
One of the things I love about Subversion compared to other systems I’ve used is how easy it is to branch. I’ve used version control systems where “branching” occurs at the item level, which isn’t really a branch at all. The way Subversion is architected internally, a branch is cheap because it’s a shallow copy of the repository state at a point in time.
At the same time, on my last big project using Subversion, we didn’t really find ourselves branching all that much. For the most part, a branch came about when it was time for a release, and we didn’t typically commit many changes on that branch afterwards. (I know, that sounds more like a tag, but (a) Subversion doesn’t care about “branch” versus “tag” semantic squabbles; and (b) we did commit on the branch sometimes.)
I worked for a while on a project that used Subversion for something called “feature branches”. The whole project was organized using a ticket system, and before you worked a ticket, you made a branch with that ticket number as the name, worked all your changes in there, and notified someone when you were done. It was good because the senior developers got to look over code changes and often had good suggestions for you to implement before they agreed to merge your change into the trunk. Peons like me didn’t ever commit to trunk.
Of course, I found a way to break it. I was working on a somewhat larger issue, and it took a little time to finish. By the time I got done, quite a bit of stuff had changed in trunk, and I wanted to make sure my files would merge cleanly and work. So I merged trunk into my branch, fixed some conflicts, and tested things out. Then I blithely submitted my ticket as ready for checkout. I don’t know what the senior developer had to do to merge my changes back into trunk, but I know that I got told not to ever do that again.
What’s interesting is that this happened years before I ever used Git for the first time, but for me it was the natural, obvious, “of course you do it that way” workflow. Production came from trunk, so before you mess it up, you do everything you can to make sure your changes are good changes.
This is the Git workflow! All the stuff about feature branches and pull requests is all based on the idea that in software development, we group related changes into features and we work those features in parallel, either as a team or individually. Like I said before, in Git we want commits to be as small as possible, so we use branches to group related commits into a feature so they can land in a product all at once.
One last Subversion note: even at the time, there was a way to do that merge and not break things the way I did. And later versions of Subversion add merge tracking that seems to work really well. But I think most people would agree that feature branches are handled amazingly well in Git compared to other tools.
Doing Some Branching
I wasted a bunch of space with that war story, so let’s get to actually doing some work in Git. Harry’s been given the task of putting Shakespeare quotes into the repository. Now that we’ve introduced feature branches, he starts by making one:
cd harry git checkout -b shakespeare
It looks a little strange to use
git checkout to make a new branch, but no stranger
svn copy. I’m showing
git checkout -b even though there is a
command that will do it, because
git branch doesn’t switch to the new branch,
and when you’re using feature branches you don’t need the hassle of remembering to switch
before you commit changes.
Note that this command is a lot different from branching in Subversion using
In particular, we didn’t have to specify a “remote” URL. This branch is totally local
to Harry’s Git repository. If you do
git branch in Harry’s repository, you’ll see it,
but if you do
git branch in
isabelle you won’t.
This new branch is based off the latest work that Harry pulled. Harry can do
all the work he wants here. Anything he commits will affect the
only, and will not affect the original branch (which is called
echo "Why man, he doth bestride the narrow world like a Colossus" > spear01 git add . git commit -m "Cassius" echo "But masters, remember that I am an ass" >> spear01 git commit -am "Dogberry"
At this point
git log will show those two new commits, because Harry is still working
in the feature branch.
Keeping Up To Date
In the meantime, Isabelle has been working on other changes. She hasn’t learned about feature branches yet:
cd ../isabelle echo "This is no ordinary line" > content04 git add . git commit -m "Fourth" git push
Isabelle pushed her changes, and Harry wants them. However, he doesn’t want them
in his feature branch; that branch is just for Shakespeare. So he switches back to
cd ../harry git checkout master git pull
If you’re following along, you’ll see that Git reports this as a
“fast-forward”. No merge is taking place here. Also, you’ll notice that
log does not show our two Shakespeare related commits in the log, and the new
spear01 file is not in the working copy.
Merging a Feature
Assuming Harry is done with Shakespeare for now, he’ll merge those changes in from
the feature branch. He’s already in
master, which is where he wants to be to
merge in changes.
git merge shakespeare
Git brings up the editor to let us make a merge commit, and once we save and exit the editor window, the change happens. All the stuff I said previously about handling conflicts, aborting merges, all that stuff applies here as well.
Now that the changes are merged, we can push them:
git push cd ../isabelle git pull cd ..
Now Isabelle has the changes too. She does not, however, have a copy of the
shakespeare branch; she only gets the new file
spear01 because it was
master. (She does have a
master branch, of course. It got created
when we cloned the
shared repository for her.)
This was a really basic feature branch, and I didn’t show most of the best reasons why you might want to use one. Fortunately I’m using the natural numbers for these chapters, so I’m not likely to run out.
Even though this was a really basic feature branch, I don’t want anyone to lose sight of what we did here. Without ever using a remote server at all, we created a branch, committed some changes to it, and merged it back into the main line. Even that basic capability is enough to change the way that a developer works when they’re working multiple tasks at the same time (which of course is most of the time). A feature branch represents freedom from worrying about leaving the codebase in a broken state while you’re implementing something complex or risky. It also provides a quick way to context switch when you’re working multiple things. These benefits of feature branches exist whether or not you’re using Git, but the ability to make a feature branch while working disconnected is not something to be taken lightly.